Česká slova ve světě - DOLLAR

3. října 2006 v 22:18 | aDa |  CZECH PRIDE
Dollar
- od českého stříbrného platidla tolar, ve své době jedna z nejsilnějších měn v Evropě. Tolary se razily od roku 1520 v Jáchymově, německy Joachimsthal (Jáchymovo údolí), adjektivum Joachimsthaler, zkr. thaler - tolar, dollar.
Některé zdroje udávají jako zemi původu Španělsko. Španělský stříbrný dolar (Dolar de Plata) se však objevil později než tzv. Jáchymovský tolar, německy Joachimstaler (případně dánsky a staroněmecky Joachimsdaler). Tolary byly stříbrné mince ražené od roku 1519 v dnešním Jáchymově, který tenkrát nesl německé jméno Joachimstal, česky Jáchymovo Údolí.

Tato měna se rychle rozšířila a po určité době se jí začalo zkráceně říkat taler, česky tolar. No a odtud je již kousek k anglickému slovu dollar, které se oficiálně používá v USA pro místní oběživo od roku 1785, kdy ji schválil Kontinentální Kongres na návrh guvernérů Morrise a Thomase Jeffersona (Jefferson je též autorem označení dime pro desetinu dolaru, tedy deseticent, původně disme - podle francouzského dixieme). První výskyt tohoto slova v ručně psaných písemnostech je však datován již do roku 1770, v tištěných nicméně až těsně na přelom 18. a 19. století.
Zajímavá je i historie zkratky amerického dolaru, i když zde již žádná vazba na Čechy neexistuje. Traduje se hned několik verzí, z nichž pochopitelně pravdivá může být jen jediná. Mezi výplody lidové slovesnosti patří například tvrzení, že přeškrtnuté S ($) vytvořil Thomas Jefferson roku jakožto určitou grafickou podobu svého monogramu. Většina ostatních verzí má nějakou návaznost na španělskou měnu pesos, což je vcelku pochopitelné vzhledem k historickým souvislostem mezi těmito dvěma zeměmi. Např. se tvrdí, že symbol $ byl vytvořen z číslice 8, neboť stará stříbrná peseta byla dělitelná na osm dílů (na způsob krájení koláče). Jako pravděpodobnější se však jeví to, že grafická značka dolaru je spojením písmen "p" a "s" ze zkráceného označení "ps", tedy zkratky pro pesos.
Ovšem tím výčet možností nekončí. Lze se též dočíst, že na erbech španělských královských rodů i na starých španělských mincích byl použit symbol velmi blízký $, vytvořený ze dvou linií, které symbolizovaly dva Herkulovy pilíře (jeden v Gibraltaru a druhý v Maroku), překřížených rozvinutým transparentem s písmeny P a U ("plus ultra"). Později byl tento symbol použit přímo jako zkratka za pesos v amerických koloniích a stal se tak základem pro označení dolaru.
Mnozí historici považují toto vysvětlení za nebližší pravdě. Jiní však zastávají názor, že není třeba chodit daleko do historie a hledat kořeny v cizích zemích. Podle nich značka $ byla vytvořena velmi prozaicky z písmene U překrytého písmenem S, tedy z jakési zhuštěné zkratky U.S. (United States, Spojené státy). Spodní oblouček U však kvuli nízké kvalitě tehdejšího tisku prý často chyběl a tak se brzy vžila podoba S přeťatého dvěma kolmými čarami. V psané formě se pak navíc pro jednoduchost jedna čára vynechávala.
Možná už se s jistotou nedozvíme, jak to opravdu přesně bylo. Jisté však je, že americká měna má překvapivě část svých historických kořenů i v centru Evropy.
 

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1 drobek drobek | 9. března 2008 v 16:00 | Reagovat

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2 drobek drobek | 9. března 2008 v 16:01 | Reagovat

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3 drobek drobek | 9. března 2008 v 16:02 | Reagovat

PIco

4 drobek drobek | 9. března 2008 v 16:02 | Reagovat

kokot

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